What's happening in the forest sector?

Understanding nesting seasons of protected bird species is part of good forest management

I love being in the woods. I don’t care if it’s just for a moment, or weeks at a time. As soon as my boots hit the dirt, I feel a sense of connection I don’t feel anywhere else. I imagine many of us who work in the woods feel this way – even if we don’t get out there as much as we would like. 

As a wildlife biologist, when I’m among the trees I particularly tune in to the birds you can find in the forest. I like hearing them, seeing them and observing their behavior. In my job I spend quite a bit of time with foresters, loggers and others who work in the woods, helping them understand which kinds of birds have special protections under state and federal law – things they must consider when planning a timber harvest or other forest operation. 

There are several species of birds called out in the Oregon Forest Practices Act, which regulates forest management practices on state and private forestland. These species require protections when forest operations could conflict with nesting. Each species has a different biology, and therefore different protections based on how and when they nest and the needs of their young.  

Bald eagle perched in a tree.

I recently helped the Oregon Forest Resources Institute’s Wildlife in Managed Forests program develop a new publication for forest landowners, managers and operators to help them understand the varied protections for bird species required by the Oregon Forest Practices Act. The Wildlife in Managed Forests: Forest Practices Act Reference Series outlines these protections for a variety of bird species. It describes specific protection requirements for each of the nine bird species featured in the pamphlet, including a chart showing the critical nesting times when special protections are required for the species. 

One way the chart can be used by operators and forest managers is to review it prior to planning timber harvests, to understand when birds aren’t nesting. That’s because if your logging operation is near a known active nest, it’s best to plan harvests outside that bird species’ nesting season. 

Understanding the Forest Practices Act protections for certain forest-reliant bird species is sometimes confusing, because the law requires very specific protection measures for species such as the northern spotted owl and osprey – while not for other species such as the golden eagle and marbled murrelet. This has a lot to do with whether the bird species is listed under the federal Endangered Species Act, and whether specific forest practice rules have been established for a species. OFRI’s new reference series that outlines these differences clearly will be incredibly helpful for anyone owning or managing an Oregon forest where these species can be found. 

Northern spotted owl perched in a tree.

You can download the Wildlife in Managed Forests: Forest Practices Act Reference Series from the publications page on OFRI’s website, and hard copies can be ordered as well – for free! 

I encourage anyone who works in the woods to review and keep this publication handy. I use this information all the time. 

Fran Cafferata 
Certified Wildlife Biologist®
Cafferata Consulting

Photo credits:

Header photo: Sara Duncan

Northern spotted owl photo: Eliana Pool  

Haunted by the ashes

I didn’t truly know how wildfires affected Oregon until I visited an art exhibit where I could visually and sonically experience the impacts of fire. I’ve heard about wildfire devastation on the news and from friends, but have never experienced them firsthand. Sarah Grew’s “Ghost Forest” and Jon Bellona’s “Wildfire” transformed a gallery into a haunting, ethereal space of warning. The art installations ran from April 24 to May 4 at the University of Oregon’s LaVerne Krause Gallery.

When I walked into the gallery, I immediately felt a chill down my spine. I was struck by the sound of crackling fire, which I couldn’t hear from outside the space. Then the fragile “ghost trees,” photographs printed on suspended panes of glass, cautioned me to walk carefully around them. The sensitivity of navigating the space made me think of the how dramatically Oregon forests and the ecosystems they house can be reshaped by fire. The ghost trees were carbon-printed images from the 2020 wildfires that devasted our state and other parts of the West, intermixed with historical forest photos. The prints were made using wildfire ash Grew collected from various forest fires across the Western U.S., including 2020’s Holiday Farm Fire, which burned more than 174,000 acres of state, federal and private land in the McKenzie River Valley east of Eugene. Grew muddled the ash and mixed it with binders to create a material that could print images. She then arranged the ghost trees in the gallery to mimic a real forest, with all its twists and turns. At first the ghost trees hanging from cables enveloped in glass overwhelmed my mind. Each photo was facing a different direction, and it was hard to take in. Viewing each image required careful consideration. I accidentally bumped into one and the entire cable started to move, startling me. 

Black and white photos suspended on wires and speakers mounted on the wall.

The “Ghost Forest” exhibit was accompanied by another art installation, “Wildfire” by Jon Bellona. “Wildfire” is an exponentially sonic exploration of being in the middle of a wildfire. The intense sounds of crackling fire coming from speakers mounted on the walls took me by surprise, and at one point became so loud that I stepped out of the gallery for a moment of quiet. 

I had to recognize this privilege. For many Oregonians, the loud, suffocating and frightening wildfires in 2020 were a reality that will affect their lives for years to come. More than 4,000 homes were destroyed in the Labor Day fires, and many forest landowners saw the trees they’d cared for go up in smoke. The social, ecological and economic impacts of these wildfires bear repeating. 

The “Ghost Forest” and “Wildfire” exhibit was an exceptional and grounding experience, and a reminder for Oregonians as we enter another wildfire season to do everything we can to prevent and prepare for wildfire. 

For wildfire prevention tips, I encourage you to visit Keep Oregon Green’s website. I also encourage you to learn more about the art installations I experienced, at the following links:
•    “Ghost Forest”
•    "Wildfire”

Trey Pokorney
Social Media & Outreach Intern

Oregon’s 27th annual statewide Envirothon competition is another success

It’s about 8 a.m. on Friday, May 5, when I arrive at The Oregon Garden for the 27th annual Oregon Envirothon competition. It’s a cool and cloudy day, and everyone’s fingers are crossed that the rain holds off. Dozens of volunteers have also arrived to help make this a memorable day for the 90-plus high-school students that have traveled here from across Oregon to test their knowledge about natural resources. Plenty of coffee and snacks have been set out for the volunteers and students to make sure everyone is fueled up for the big day ahead. By the afternoon, we’ll see which school takes home the top prize: the chance to represent Oregon at the national Envirothon competition this summer.

All Hands

OFRI organizes and sponsors the Oregon Envirothon, an annual competition in which Oregon high-school students test their knowledge of environmental sciences. The regional event is part of NCF-Envirothon, a national organization that works to develop the next generation of conservation leaders. 

Each year, Envirothon impacts thousands of young people across the country. The program is made possible by dedicated volunteers, teachers and advisors, along with many passionate students. The Oregon Envirothon is open to all Oregon high-school students and is held annually on the first Friday in May at The Oregon Garden in Silverton.

Students from a dozen different high schools located across the state gathered at The Oregon Garden for the 2023 Oregon Envirothon. They were joined by over 40 volunteers and the entire OFRI staff, all dedicated to making it a memorable day.

This year’s Oregon Envirothon started with everyone gathering in the Grand Hall, where Rikki Heath – OFRI’s K-12 environmental educator – kicked off the day with the overall agenda and instructions. By 9 a.m., the 20 small teams of students were released to their first stations.

Teams face off by completing a series of exams at five stations positioned in relevant locations throughout the 80-acre botanical garden. For example, the forestry station is in the Rediscovery Forest, a 15-acre demonstration forest that OFRI manages. After 25 minutes at a station, students move to the next one – resembling a race or “marathon” of environmental testing, hence the name “Envirothon.”

tree tape
aquatic microscope

The five ecological stations include the “core four” – aquatic ecology, forest ecology, soils and land use, and wildlife ecology – which remain consistent year to year, plus a current issue, which changes for each event. This year’s current issue was “Adapting to the Changing Climate.” I visited the wildlife station first, where the students were hard at work studying the various displays and working through the exam questions together.

Wildlife station with animal pelts and skulls.      

By about 1 p.m., all the teams had completed their tests at each station, and it was time to reconvene at the Grand Hall for lunch and oral presentations. The oral presentation competition focuses on the year’s current issue, and students prepare for it in advance by sending in video presentations that are scored before competition day. The two highest-scoring teams were selected to deliver their presentations live at the competition for a panel of expert judges, other participating students, their teachers and volunteers.

Finally, it was awards time! The top five teams overall each received a wooden plaque to commemorate the event, and the first-place team won the opportunity to travel to New Brunswick, Canada in July to compete against other state finalists from around the U.S. and Canada. Oregon Envirothon is an affiliate of NCF-Envirothon, which hosts the national competition for the top team from each U.S. state and Canadian province.

2023 Envirothon winnersSouthern Oregon virtually swept the awards, with the “Rogue Pack Alpha” team from Logos Public Charter School in Medford winning five of the six individual category awards and first place overall.     

It was an amazing day with some tremendously talented high-school students, many of whom are likely to be Oregon’s future natural resources leaders. And OFRI’s staff did a wonderful job (as always!) with the pre-planning and execution that day to pull off another successful event. OFRI is proud to be the sole financial sponsor and staff supporter of Oregon Envirothon, and we always love to collaborate with many other supporters and volunteers throughout the year to make this annual event the success it’s been for 27 years running.

This was my first time experiencing the Oregon Envirothon since coming on as executive director last year, and it didn’t disappoint. I’ll be looking forward to the next one in 2024 and getting to see all the youthful excitement again around a future in Oregon’s natural resources.

Jim Paul
Executive Director 


Exploring Oregon’s forests: A wintry waterfall hike

Tucked in the deep western side of the Oregon’s Cascade Range is a world that can be described as “clamorous serenity,” at Sahalie and Koosah falls. 

The falls are in the Willamette National Forest off Highway 126, about 75 miles east of Eugene. Known as the McKenzie Highway, 126 runs parallel to the McKenzie River, all the way to its source at Clear Lake. A visit to Sahalie and Koosah – spectacular waterfalls nestled in a lush Douglas-fir forest – is one of the many highlights along the route that showcase Oregon’s natural beauty.

Wooden sign on tree that reads "Waterfall Trail."

On a recent winter Saturday, I hiked through the forest to view the magnificent falls. There are more than 70 miles of road from Eugene before you get to Sahalie and Koosah. It’s worth every mile. After leaving the industrial strip of Springfield, the road mellows. Low, verdant Willamette foothills nestle the communities of Walterville, Leaburg and Vida. The scars of the 2020 wildfires still permeate the higher foothills. Patches of reforested saplings trim the evergreen horizon as the hills ripple in the background. The tumbling McKenzie River alongside the road reminds visitors of the inclining journey. The town of McKenzie Bridge is the last stop before the true climb into the Cascades. 

As I approached the mountains, cars bound for Central Oregon followed the highway’s curve to the north, tracking on pavement peppered white with fresh snowflakes. The forest slowly swallowed the space flanking the road as I hit an elevation of 2,000 feet. Out the driver’s-side window, a brown and yellow sign signaled my first destination: Sahalie Falls.

Snowman in the forest.

The metropolis of Douglas-firs that awaited me was bustling with life. Entering the forest from the highway requires cautious tiptoeing to reach the trailhead. Smiling faces returning from an adventure with star-struck eyes ascended the trail to the busy parking lot. The water’s rush became audible as I stomped down on the icy snow and grabbed the mossy railings. Then, following the camera flashes beyond the snowy cliffs, I saw Sahalie Falls. The behemoth roar was inescapable as the whitewater ripped through adolescent trees and scalloped cliffs, misting the slick green rocks below. Undisturbed, decomposing fallen trees hugged the moss and snow in the shallow river valley. It was hard to imagine what else could hide in this winter wonderland. 

Waterfall with snow-covered rocks surrounding it.

Sahalie Falls is an exciting start to the Waterfall Trail hike. “Sahalie” is a Chinook word for “high.” Navigating the snowy path required stepping into the foot-size impressions and grabbing the thin trees for balance. It would be easy to become a victim of gravity on the icy layer of snow covering the trail. It felt like a narrow busy street, with the rush of the McKenzie River like rush-hour traffic and the towering trees like skyscrapers. I stomped down the center of the trail, occasionally stepping too far to one side and finding my lower leg swallowed by the snow. Luckily, the younger trees along the trail guided my direction. Trees filled with heavy clumps of snow escorted me along the trail of muddy rocks and hemlocks. Eventually I saw the familiar sight of a mossy banister. 

Waterfall with split flows surrounded by trees.

After drinking in the majesty of Sahalie, I continued until I recognized the echoes ahead. I eased around the corner to see Douglas-firs projecting from the cliffs. I assumed any root damage might cause a long drop into the pool below. The evergreen facade eventually faded and revealed Koosah Falls. The Chinook translation of “Koosah” describes the heavenly descent of the water from the sky. The twin falls flooded the mossy river bottom. The double-trouble mist caused cloudy turbulence, as if to shield what hides behind. I reflected, perched on a damp wooden bench as the smell of conifers filled my nose. The tumultuous river and the immovable forest in this world of serenity contrast with the natural clamorous environment. There’s peace in the balance of chaos and tranquility. I took a moment to pause and reflect on this symbolism. Breathe in, breathe through, breathe deep, breathe out. This was the good life.

Sign that says "Willamette National Forest viewpoint Sahalie Falls

Oregon’s forests are amazing. To check out this breathtaking hike for yourself, learn more here

Trey Pokorney
Social Media & Outreach Intern 

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