Jeffrey Pine

(Pinus jeffreyi)

At home in nearly any environment
The Jeffrey pine can occupy a diverse range of climatic conditions, from the arid slopes bordering deserts to the edges of moist, high mountain meadows. It grows well on harsh and infertile sites. It is tolerant of drought and adapts to cold weather because it requires a shorter growing season than most pines.

It is found primarily in northern California, extending through the Klamath Mountains into southwestern Oregon. It is a high-altitude species in the north of its range, thriving in altitudes of 4,900 to 6,900 feet where the usually faster-growing ponderosa pine does poorly.

The Jeffrey pine may live 400 to 500 years, and can attain immense size, typically 4 to 6 feet in diameter and 170 to 200 feet in height. Its needles are in bundles of three and are 7 to 11 inches long. Its cones are oval and lack the spines found on ponderosa pine cones. Each scale has a curved J-shaped look.

Jeffrey pine forests provide wildlife cover for birds small mammals and big game. Its seeds are both disseminated and eaten by insects, birds, and small mammals such as mice, chipmunks and tree squirrels.

Jeffrey pine grows well in a variety of climate conditions, but in general it does best in areas with short, cool summers and long, cold winters during which the ground is covered with snow for long periods.

In field plantations the Jeffrey pine grows less rapidly than ponderosa pine during the sapling stage, but more rapidly in the pole stage. Survival and growth depend on site preparation and post-planting protection against aggressive understory plants. Brush, grasses and sedges all are lethal competition for available soil water in dry summer environments.


9755 SW Barnes Rd., Suite 210        
Portland, OR 97225        
Phone: 971-673-2944        
Fax: 971-673-2946

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